Aegean Sea. Poland., with her tradition and her ability to gain partners
and form unions was., in particular, closely watched by Moscow.
Thus the ideas of federation which were coining to the foie in Eastern
and Central Europe during the first years of the wax as the result of bitter
experience, were persistently thwarted by the Kremlin. Churchill's
preliminary proposal to organise Europe,, encountered a wave of anger
from Moscow.* The Soviet Press campaign^ threatening to break up the
Treaty with Britain, followed the dogma already laid down by Stalin :—
" For the slogan—the United States of Europe—we will substitute the
slogan of the Federation of the Soviet Republics of advanced countries and
colonies which have fallen or are falling away from the imperialist system
This was outspoken enough—a Russian Empire incorporating Europe.
The Soviet Union could be finally triumphant only in the event of the
total effacement of the opposite * polar centre.9
" If the Russian Bolsheviks/' Churchill had once written, " can pull
down Great Britain and obliterate the British Empire as a force in the world,
they are convinced the road will be clear for a general butchery, followed
by a universal tyranny . . . "£
On November 6, 1943, Stalin gave still further evidence in his speech
that there had been no change in the ideological creed of the Kremlin.
He apotheosised the Soviet Communist system and the—
" leadership of the Bolshevik Party " under which " workers, peasants and
intelligentsia (of the Soviet Union) have won their freedom and built the
Socialist society." " The Communist Party in the patriotic war has stood
as the inspiration and is the organiser of the nation-wide struggle against
Fascist invaders . .§ The Soviet State," Stalin emphasised with pride,
" was never so stable and unshakeable as now, in the third year of our pat-
riotic war. The lessons of the war show that the Soviet system is not only
* One of the most vigorous attacks against " federations, confederations, and
regional blocs of States," was made by Moscow's War and the Working Class in
August, 1943. Moscow emphasised that "the project of an Eastern European
Federation (democratic Czecho-Slovakia, feudal Hungary, republican Poland and
monarchist Rumania) is directed against the Soviet Union.'5 Such a fedeiation
conceived after the pattern of the Austria-Hungarian Empire, was totally incom-
patible with the security of the Soviets.
f Problem of Leninism^ p. 337.
i January 20th, 1926.
§ There was a striking similarity in the role of the elitarian mono-party which
exists in dictatorships, Fascist and Communist alike, in their preparation of " the
whole people for the test." c£ The organisational work of the Party " wrote Stalin
" has united and directed towards the common goal all the efforts of Soviet people
subordinating all our forces and means to the cause of defeating the enemy. During
this war the Party increased its kinship with the people and has established still
closer links with the wide masses of the working people." The same thought was
expressed by Goebbels a few months later in one of his weekly articles in Das
Reich and quoted by the Daily Telegraph, May 12th, 1944:
" The Germans in this war are led by a strong hand. The German people are
led firmly by the hand3 by countless directing bodies with their ramifications
stretching to the last party group in the last back-of-beyond village. The party is
rooted in the people and has its hand on the people's pulse.
" These millions of party officials form and shape the political will of the